The growth factors immediately bind to the external surface of the cell membranes of cells in the graft, flap, or wound via transmembrane receptors. The importance of this is that the PRP growth factors never enter the cell or its nucleus, they are not mutagenic, and they act through the stimulation of normal healing, just much faster. Therefore, PRP has no ability to induce tumor formation and has never done so.” (Marx, RE, 2001), (Schmitz, et al, 2001)